In any software project, tasks and risks fall into one of three categories:

Known knowns’ are where you know about the task and you know how to do them.

Known unknowns’ are where you anticipate that there will be a risk. These two are almost always dutifully included in any project planning, and all risks are accounted for. But they are rarely what makes projects late or cost more than anticipated.

Unknown unknowns’ are those things that are not even on our radar when we’re planning a project. And for anything beyond trivial tasks, they are certain to be there. Unless an IoT project is simply a copy of something that already exists, it will be full of unknown unknowns.

Sure, it’s possible through planning and applying past experience to reduce the amount of unknown unknowns in a project. But that doesn’t change the fact that they will be there. Good project management does not eliminate unknown unknowns, but employs agile practices to manage them.

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